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Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures. Early architectural use of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent is known as Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement.
Russian Orientalist art was largely concerned with the areas of Central Asia that Russia was conquering during the century, and also in historical painting with the Mongols who had dominated Russia for much of the Middle Ages, who were rarely shown in a good light. Small pagodas appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens.
Such works typically concentrated on Arab, Jewish, and other Semitic cultures, as those were the ones visited by artists as France became more engaged in North Africa. In particular, Orientalist painting , depicting more specifically "the Middle East ",  was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art , and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes.
But many major figures, from Mozart to Flaubert, have produced significant works with Oriental subjects or treatments. Many travelers had themselves painted in exotic Eastern dress on their return, including Lord Byron , as did many who had never left Europe, including Madame de Pompadour.
David Roberts — produced architectural and landscape views, many of antiquities , and published very successful books of lithographs from them. In that time, artists and scholars were described as Orientalists, especially in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary.
The Three Magi in Nativity scenes were an especial focus for this. British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. The origins of British Orientalist 19th-century painting owe more to religion than military conquest or the search for plausible locations for naked women.
Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company , who said that the Arab culture , the culture of India , and the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. He was greatly struck by what he saw, comparing the North African way of life to that of the Ancient Romans, and continued to paint subjects from his trip on his return to France.
Sober homages to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the tang evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs that suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational, flexible, and superior. Early ceramic wares made at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares see Chinese export porcelain.
In general art with Biblical settings would not be considered as Orientalist except where contemporary or historicist Middle Eastern detail or settings is a feature of works, as with some paintings by Gentile Bellini and others, and a number of 19th century works. Thomas Chippendale 's mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, c.
The mythical Milesians are one example of this. The ambitious Scottish 18th-century artist Gavin Hamilton found a solution to the problem of using modern dress, considered unheroic and inelegant, in history painting by using Middle Eastern settings with Europeans wearing local costume, as travelers were advised to do. California architects Greene and Greene were inspired by Japanese elements in their design of the Gamble House and other buildings.
In many of these works, they portrayed the Orient as exotic, colorful and sensual, not to say stereotyped. He "never painted a nude", and his wife modelled for several of his harem scenes,  which, with the rare examples by the classicist painter Lord Leighton , imagine "the harem as a place of almost English domesticity, Fernand Cormon , The Deposed Favourite , Ferdinand Max Bredt — Turkish ladies John Frederick Lewis , The Reception , Other artists concentrated on landscape painting , often of desert scenes, including Richard Dadd and Edward Lear.
In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia , during the 19th century. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". Other artists including the Pre-Raphaelite William Holman Hunt and David Roberts had similar motivations,  giving an emphasis on realism in British Orientalist art from the start.
Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio were the leading painters. After , Japonism , sparked by the importing of ukiyo-e , became an important influence in the western arts. Though British political interest in the territories of the unravelling Ottoman Empire was as intense as in France, it was mostly more discreetly exercised.
Authors and composers are not commonly referred to as "Orientalist" in the way that artists are, and relatively few specialized in Oriental topics or styles, or are even best known for their works including them. The Wilhelma in Stuttgart is an example of Moorish Revival architecture. William Holman Hunt produced a number of major paintings of Biblical subjects drawing on his Middle Eastern travels, improvising variants of contemporary Arab costume and furnishings to avoid specifically Islamic styles, and also some landscapes and genre subjects.
The Miracle of the Holy Fire was intended as a picturesque satire on the local Eastern Christians, of whom, like most English visitors, Hunt took a very dim view. French Orientalist painting was transformed by Napoleon 's ultimately unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and Syria in —, which stimulated great public interest in Egyptology , and was also recorded in subsequent years by Napoleon's court painters, especially Antoine-Jean Gros , although the Middle Eastern campaign was not one on which he accompanied the army.
Moorish Revival architecture began in the early 19th century in the German states and was particularly popular for building synagogues. A Very Short Introduction , Stephen Howe agreed with Said that Western nations and their empires were created by the exploitation of underdeveloped countries, by the extraction of wealth and labour from one country to another country.
Egyptian Revival architecture became popular in the early and midth century and continued as a minor style into the early 20th century. Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream "chinoiserie". The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature, especially French literature, and do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting.
The Saidian analysis has not prevented a strong revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist works since the s, the latter was in large part led by Middle Eastern buyers. Though not noted as a religious painter, Wilkie made the trip with a Protestant agenda to reform religious painting, as he believed that: He hoped to find more authentic settings and decor for Biblical subjects at their original location, though his death prevented more than studies being made.
In music, Orientalism may be applied to styles occurring in different periods, such as the alla Turca , used by multiple composers including Mozart and Beethoven.Like many later Orientalist painters, he was frustrated by the difficulty of sketching women, and many of his scenes featured Jews or warriors on horses. Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo -Islamic cultures, especially Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. These depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture was a genre that arose in the late 19th century in the British Raj. Since the publication of Edward Said 's Orientalism in , much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian, and North African societies. Kew has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by William Chambers. The Irish were also conscious of the views of other nations seeing them as comparably backward to the East, and Europe's "backyard Orient". However, he was apparently able to get into the women's' quarters or harem of a house to sketch what became Women of Algiers ; few later harem scenes had this claim to authenticity. Other scenes, especially in genre painting , have been seen as either closely comparable to their equivalents set in modern-day or historical Europe, or as also reflecting an Orientalist mind-set in the Saidian sense of the term. More open sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient. Verdi's opera Aida is set in Egypt as portrayed through the content and the visual spectacle. Similar strains of fascination and repulsion convulsed their artists"  Nonetheless, nudity and violence are more evident in British paintings set in the ancient world, and "the iconography of the odalisque John Frederick Lewis , who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo , painted highly detailed works showing both realistic genre scenes of Middle Eastern life and more idealized scenes in upper class Egyptian interiors with no traces of Western cultural influence yet apparent. Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century. They stressed both lassitude and visual spectacle. Delacroix followed up with Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi , commemorating a siege of the previous year, and The Death of Sardanapalus , inspired by Lord Byron , which although set in antiquity has been credited with beginning the mixture of sex, violence, lassitude and exoticism which runs through much French Orientalist painting. Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez near Madrid. His huge James Dawkins and Robert Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra , now Edinburgh elevates tourism to the heroic, with the two travelers wearing what look very like togas.
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